English Litrature Essay

EvaEddy: ONTHEINVOLVEMENTOFCOGNITIVEPROCESSESINTHEACQUISITIONOFENGLISHGRAMMARBYSLOVAKLEARNERS _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


1 ) 1 Introductory note

In addition to those factors that affect the purchase of a foreign vocabulary in general (namely the part of the language environment, the role of input, the role in the first language and inner processing – for more information, cf. Eddy, 2011), there is a set of such influences that range from one student to another and differ in respect to a learner's inner qualities. Authors within the field separate various factors which, because they believe, effect second or perhaps foreign language obtain. Among these types of, individual spanish student characteristics perform a central role. Liao (1996: 1) distinguishes the subsequent cognitive elements of second language acquisition: (1) intelligence, (2) aptitude, and (3) learning strategies. Lujan-Ortega (2000) suggests (1) grow older, (2) aptitude/intelligence, (3) motivation, (4) learning/cognitive style, and (5) character. Skehan (2002) argues that in literature four key areas are emphasised when considering individual differences in second and foreign language learning: (1) terminology aptitude, (2) learning style, (3) determination, and (4) learning tactics. He adds that, in accordance to Dewaele and Furnham (1999), character is also of certain importance. Bond (2002), in her research in successful students learning english as a second language, is more correct in declaring the factors that may help one's learning and draws more detailed perspective: (1) era, (2) exposure to foreign language in infancy, (3) immersion, (4) intelligence, (5) personality, (6) attitude and motivation, (7) relationship between first and target terminology, (8) physical style, (9) learning approaches, and (10) other factors (mimicry, musical ability). The author of the article " Learner characteristics: factors influencing the success of L2 acquisition” summarizes opinions of several authors and proves that the following factors affect the success of foreign language buy: (1) intellect, (2) learning aptitude, (3) personality, (4) motivation and attitude, and (5) regarding acquisition. Additionally it is stated in the content that due to a lack of in depth research in the area, there is absolutely no solid facts for effect of aptitude, individuality and student beliefs and preferences. A similar approach can be obtained from Ellis (1985: 10) whom claims that " there are five standard factors that contribute to individual learner differences in some depth”: (1) era, (2) aptitude, (3) intellectual style, (4) motivation, and (5) individuality.


EvaEddy: ONTHEINVOLVEMENTOFCOGNITIVEPROCESSESINTHEACQUISITIONOFENGLISHGRAMMARBYSLOVAKLEARNERS _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Liao (1996) asks whether there really is " such some thing as a gift idea for learning, distinct from general intelligence” (Liao, 1996: 9), which in turn implies that he considers general intelligence (g-factor) one of the most critical factors influencing terminology acquisition. " The study of person differences in SLA has received substantial attention through the years and has shown that there are a number of dimensions of learner variations which are generally acknowledged to impact the way that they learn overseas languages, how they perform in actual vocabulary use plus the eventual amounts of success they will achieve” (Lujan-Ortega, 2000: 1). From the above summary, several assumptions can be built. Within specific learner distinctions, there are a number of factors that influence foreign language buy. Most writers state that age, motivation and attitude, learning style/strategy



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